Sudan continues to experience significant levels of insecurity and repression, particularly in the zones affected by conflict. There are currently 3.2 million Sudanese internally displaced by the conflicts in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile with over 110,000 people from the Jebel Marra region of Darfur newly displaced by fighting in 2016 alone.
Human rights defenders, students, and political opposition members frequently face intimidation, arrest, detention, and torture as the Sudanese government attempts to suppress critical and independent voices.
Freedom of peaceful assembly
Freedom of assembly is regularly violated by Sudanese security services with excessive use of force during protests.
On 10 January in West Darfur, security forces opened protestors that had gathered outside the state governor’s office to demand protection after their village was looted and burned to the ground by suspected members of Sudan’s Rapid Support Forces earlier the same day. At least seven protestors were killed that day and three people were killed the following day when security forces fired at their funeral to disperse it. 
On 31 January 2016, a peaceful student gathering at El-Geneina University in West Darfur was violently dispersed by the National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) and a pro-government student militia who beat students with metal bars. Over 24 students were arrested and reported that NISS beat them while in custody. One of the students arrested, Salah Gamar-Eldin, was found the following day unconscious in front of his family home with signs of torture on his body. He later died as a result of his injuries in a nearby hospital.
On 3 February 2016, 15 female protestors were beaten by security forces and arrested after staging demonstrations calling for justice for victims killed during Sudan’s September 2013 protests, which led to the deaths of 185 people.
Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression and the press remain deeply restricted within Sudan. Newspapers are regularly confiscated and suspended and in the lead up to Sudan’s elections in April 2015, NISS confiscated newspapers from media houses on 42 occasions.
The 2009 Press and Publications Act gives the National Council on Press and Publications the ability to suspend newspapers for up to three days, however this is regularly violated as media houses are frequently suspended for extended periods of time. The Act also imposes severe punishments for editors of newspapers, which leaves them criminally liable for content published by their media houses.
On 15 December 2015, Ahmed Yousef El Tay, editor of Al-Saiha, and Osman Marghani editor of El Tayar, were arrested and accused of publishing false news and undermining the Constitution. On 12 December 2015, both editors had written columns on energy consumption in Sudan with criticism of the Finance Minister’s comments blaming citizens for electrical cuts. NISS confiscated the entire print run of El Tayar on 14 December 2015 and on the following day suspended the paper indefinitely. This was the 15th time it had been confiscated over the course of 2015.
Freedom of association
The Freedom of association is constrained by the Organisation of Humanitarian and Voluntary Work Act, which has been used to shutdown and restrict the work of NGOs in the country.
On 29 February 2016, the Sudanese National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) once again raided the office of TRACKs for Training and Human Development. Since the most recent raid, NISS agents forced TRACKs staff and visitors who were in the office at the time of the search to report to security offices repeatedly, subjecting them to inhumane treatment. On the day of the raid, officials from NISS entered the offices of TRACKs without a warrant and held all staff and visitors in the office while they confiscated laptops, phones, publications, organisational documents and later their passports.
 “Humanitarian Bulletin Issue 11”, OCHA, 13 March 2016, http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/OCHA_Sudan_Weekly_Humanitarian_Bulletin_Issue_11_%287_-_13_March_2016%29.pdf
 “Sudan must protect civilians in West Darfur and reign in security forces after village burned and protestors lethally shot”, African Centre for Justice and Peace Studies, 14 January 2016, http://www.acjps.org/sudan-must-protect-civilians-in-west-darfur-and-reign-in-security-forces-after-village-burned-and-protestors-lethally-shot/
 “One Student Dead After Heavy Beatings and Serious Concern for Safety of Another Student Detained Incommunicado at Security Offices”, African Centre for Justice and Peace Studies, 8 February 2016, http://www.acjps.org/west-darfur-one-student-dead-after-heavy-beatings-and-serious-concern-for-safety-of-another-student-detained-incommunicado-at-security-offices/
 “Sudan: Darfur Activist Dies After Arrest, Suspected Torture”, Freedom House, 4 February 2016, https://freedomhouse.org/article/sudan-darfur-activist-dies-after-arrest-apparent-torture
 “Protestors Calling for Justice for Victims of 2013 Protest Killings Beaten and Detained by Sudan’s Security Agency in Khartoum”, African Centre for Justice and Peace Studies, 10 February 2016, http://www.acjps.org/protestors-calling-for-justice-for-victims-of-2013-protest-killings-beaten-and-detained-by-sudans-security-agency-in-khartoum/
 “Entrenched Repression: Freedom of Expression and Association Under Unprecedented Attack”, Amnesty International, 2 April 2015, https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr54/1364/2015/en/
 “Sudanese Editors Could Face Death Penalty Over Critical Coverage”, Committee to Protect Journalists, 21 December 2015, https://cpj.org/2015/12/sudanese-editors-could-face-death-penalty-over-cri.php
 “Sudanese Editors Face Death Penalty for ‘Inciting an Arab Spring’”, The Guardian, 21 December 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/21/sudan-editors-death-penalty-arab-spring-charges
 “Sudan TRACKs Office Once Against Raided and Staff Targeted by National Intelligence”, East and Horn of Africa Human Rights Defenders Project, 23 March 2016, https://www.defenddefenders.org/2016/03/sudan-tracks-office-once-against-raided-and-staff-targeted-by-national-intelligence/